Nowadays, 4G networks are very popular and everyone is satisfied from this new technology. However, 5G networks are coming. Telecommunication companies work on the mobile standard which will introduce throughput up to 10 Gbps. It is not so simple, you can not launch the product on the market without any preparation. Spectrum from 6 GHz up to 100 GHz will be needed for this new technology. How is the RF spectrum utilized currently?
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The most popular are bands below 6 GHz. WiFi uses 5 GHz spectrum and it works very well. However, everyone wants to go with the times and begin to use bands at frequencies higher that 6 GHz.
The standard is named 802.11.ad, it is WiGig network. We will see these networks on the market in 5 years, however it is good to discuss about it now. Experiment show that it is possible to achieve 10 Gbps wireless connection at 60 GHz band 🙂 How will it look? Each LTE-A base station will be equipped with additional modules and antennas. These new antennas will be able to transmit several beams to multi users located over the whole area. Of course, new modulations and codes will be also required.
Nowadays there are several techniques which allow to improve the speed of WiFi network (e.g. carrier aggregation and spectrum sharing with others WiFi networks.
What is the most disadvantage of WiGig solution? Unfortunately, we can not break principles of physics, so the range of WiGig stations is very short. Also 60 GHz radio frequency waves can not go through a lot of obstacles (e.g. walls).
It looks that the full use of new microwave bands above 6 GHz will be very time-consuming and it will be require more time than it was in case of LTE technology. It is planned that the first 5G devices will be available in 2020. At first it will be solution for lower frequencies, however over time we will see solutions for 60 – 100 GHz bands.